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精品推荐:乾隆年制青花矾红龙纹瓶

清乾隆一朝六十年,是清代封建社会发展的鼎盛时期,瓷器生产取得了空前的繁荣,青花瓷烧造也达到了登峰造极的程度。此期青花瓷是当时景德镇瓷器的主流产品,官窑青花和民窑青花的烧造量都超过历史上任何朝代遗留下来的传世品。其瓷器无论是工艺技巧还是装饰艺术都已达到了炉火纯青、出神入化的地步。

The 60th year of the reign of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty was the heyday of the development of feudal society in the Qing Dynasty. Porcelain production achieved unprecedented prosperity, and the firing of blue and white porcelain reached the peak. This period of blue and white porcelain was the mainstream product of Jingdezhen porcelain at that time. The firing volume of blue and white porcelain in official kilns and folk kilns exceeded the handed down products left over from any dynasty in history. Its porcelain has reached the level of perfection and perfection in both craft skills and decorative art.

 

 

乾隆青花以纹饰繁密、染画工整、造型新奇取胜。除传统的白地青花外,乾隆朝的青花还派生出许多新品种,把原有的传统工艺提高到一个崭新的阶段。如青花红彩、青花加紫、青花胭脂彩、青花油红、青花斗彩、青花粉彩加金、青花描金、青花釉里红、黄地青花等等。

Qianlong's blue and white flowers won by their dense patterns, neat dyeing and painting, and novel shapes. In addition to the traditional white ground blue and white flowers, the blue and white flowers of the Qianlong Dynasty also derived many new varieties, raising the original traditional technology to a new stage. Such as blue and white red color, blue and white plus purple, blue and white Rouge color, blue and white oil red, blue and white fighting color, blue and white powder color plus gold, blue and white painting gold, blue and white underglaze red, yellow ground blue and white, etc.

 

乾隆青花在清代素以“稳定、浑厚、沉着”而著称,使用国产青料石子青绘制。早期的发色与雍正青花差别不大,略见晕散,但比雍正时期稳定;中期呈色稳定明快,为纯蓝色;后期呈色较为厚重沉闷,无明快清丽之感。纹饰种类很多,有缛丽繁密,犹如织锦的;有画面恢宏,横刀立马的;有锦地开光,内绘主画的;有在青花纹饰上罩较单色釉的;有在同一器物上同时使用青花、斗彩、镂雕、色釉等多种装饰手法的。为了突出瓷器精品的高贵,不计成本,极尽表现之能事。

Qianlong blue and white painting in the Qing Dynasty is known as "stable, vigorous and calm". It is painted with domestic green material stone green. The early hair color is not different from Yongzheng blue and white, slightly dizzy, but more stable than Yongzheng period; In the middle stage, the color is stable and bright, pure blue; In the later stage, the color is thick and dull, without a sense of lightness and beauty. There are many kinds of patterns, which are red, beautiful and dense, just like brocade; There is a magnificent picture, the horizontal knife immediately; There are brocade fields, which are mainly painted inside; There are blue and white patterns covered with monochrome glaze; Some people use blue and white, fighting color, carving, colored glaze and other decorative techniques on the same utensil at the same time. In order to highlight the nobility of high-quality porcelain products, we do our best to express ourselves regardless of cost.

 

矾红是在氧化气氛中烧制而成的低温红釉,比‌‌烧成高温铜红容易得多,虽不及铜红纯正艳丽,但呈色稳定。矾红创烧于明嘉靖间。到清康熙时,矾红有了很大的进步,色泽艳丽,一般用于五彩、斗彩绘制纹饰或施于纯色釉器。嘉庆以后,矾红色泽不甚佳,至光绪时才稍有起色。

Alum red is a low-temperature red glaze fired in an oxidizing atmosphere. It is much easier than firing high-temperature copper red. Although it is not as pure and gorgeous as copper red, it is stable in color. Alum red was burned in Jiajing, Ming Dynasty. By the time of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty, alum red had made great progress, with bright color. It was generally used for multicolored and bucket color painting and decoration, or for solid glaze ware. After Jiaqing, the alum red luster was not very good, and it only improved slightly during Guangxu.

 

陶瓷以青花配矾红,似肇始明宣德一朝。此工艺于晚明复现,但在清代御瓷中并不多见,其原因之一,或许是高温烧好釉下青花瓷后,还须在釉上用矾红彩绘,再重新入窖二次低温烧成,工艺较为复杂,也增加了制作成本和风险。此青花矾红缠枝龙纹梅瓶即为典型一例,十分难得。

Ceramics are blue and white with alum red, which seems to have begun the Xuande Dynasty of the Ming Dynasty. This process reappeared in the late Ming Dynasty, but it is rare in the imperial porcelain of the Qing Dynasty. One of the reasons may be that after firing the underglaze blue and white porcelain at high temperature, it must also be painted with alum red on the glaze, and then re-enter the pit for secondary low-temperature firing. The process is more complex, which also increases the production cost and risk. This blue and white alum red twig wrapped dragon plum vase is a typical example, which is very rare.

 

此件乾隆年制青花矾红龙纹瓶,口径77mm,高260mm,腹径115mm,底85mm,典雅端庄、俊秀俏丽,是传承千年的陈设经典样式。胎质坚白,细腻润泽。腹通体满绘纹饰,以青花绘缠枝花纹,用矾红画龙纹、火纹。整体繁复,密不透风,几乎整个瓷面都见龙纹穿插、飞腾于花间,虽繁但不显得杂乱,体现出了一种复杂之美。龙常用于指代“天子”,画中大小数十飞龙,老幼兼有,动作充满张力,旋转翻飞,各具雄姿。一则寓意“苍龙教子”,二则表现子孙繁多,传达出一种祈求“多子多福”的美好愿景。底足见“大清乾隆年制”篆书款。

This blue and white alum red dragon bottle made in the year of Qianlong has a caliber of 77mm, a height of 260mm, a belly diameter of 115mm and a bottom of 85mm. It is elegant, dignified, handsome and beautiful. It is a classic style of furnishings inherited for thousands of years. The tire is firm and white, delicate and moist. The whole body of the abdomen is covered with decorative patterns, tangled branches are painted with blue and white, and dragon and fire patterns are painted with alum red. The whole is complex and airtight. Almost the whole porcelain surface can see dragon patterns interspersed and soaring among the flowers. Although it is complex, it does not appear messy, reflecting a complex beauty. The dragon is often used to refer to the "son of heaven". In the painting, there are dozens of flying dragons, old and young, full of tension, rotating and flying, each with majestic posture. One implies "Canglong teaches children", and the other shows that there are many children and grandchildren, conveying a beautiful vision of praying for "more children and more happiness". The bottom shows the seal script of "made in the year of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty".

 

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